Working Papers

You can find all REMINDER working papers here.

Perceptions of EU Immigrants’ Welfare Impacts: The Role of Political Sophistication and Predispositions

Existing evidence suggests that perceptions of immigrants’ welfare impacts vary widely between Europeans in ways that do not reflect the realities of those impacts for their country. Are misperceptions more widespread among people with lower levels of knowledge of EU institutions and immigration-related facts, or do people knowingly express misperceptions to signal their ideological position on the issue of immigration? In this report, researchers draw on survey data across seven EU countries to explore to what extent political knowledge or ideological predispositions are more defining for people’s evaluations of the welfare impacts of EU immigrants.

Education Moderating Effects on Free Movement Attitudes: A Comparative Approach

Media is likely to play a role in forming people’s attitudes toward political topics such as intra-EU migration. Education is perceived as one of the most important factors moderating media influence. In this study, researchers conducted a panel analysis in seven European countries to investigate whether and how people’s level of education affects the extent […]

Monitoring and Mapping Migration in the EU with Existing Data

This paper provides an overview and discussion of the main databases available to aid understanding of migration within the European Union. The paper maps existing data sources and evaluates them for their usefulness and quality in supporting intra-EU migration research. In addition to a desk review of sources, European migration data experts were interviewed for […]

Multilingual Dictionary Construction: A Roapmap to Measuring Migration Frames in European Media Discourse

Research using computer-assisted multi-lingual text analysis is still relatively sparse, and methods tend to focus on West-European languages only. This working paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art of research in multi-language computer-assisted methodologies, with a focus on so-called ‘dictionary approaches’.

A Bridge Over the Language Gap: Topic Modelling for Text Analyses Across Languages for Country Comparative Research

Work Package 8 of the REMINDER project has used computer-assisted techniques to examine some 1.5 million news articles across seven languages. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of different methodological strategies for conducting such analysis across multiple languages. The authors give a general overview of the intricacies of computer-assisted text analysis of multilingual data, and […]

European Media and Migration-Related News: Comparing Discourse with Reality

This study seeks to identify divergences between discourses of migration in European media (immigration and emigration) and objective reality. The research seeks to expand upon existing knowledge of the production processes behind news about migration (general migration and intra-EU migration) by analysing the degree to which both the salience and the framing of news about […]

Political Migration Discourses on Social Media Across Countries and Over Time

This paper aims to complement existing understandings of public discourses about European migration by focusing on social media, specifically Facebook. The researchers investigate the Facebook status posts of 1,590 political actors in Spain, the UK, Germany, Austria, Sweden and Poland from 2015-2017. Applying innovative, automated procedures to a large scale text corpus, this study focuses […]

Language Use and Migration: Discursive Representations of Migrants in European Media in Times of Crisis

This paper investigates the discursive representation of migrants in European media, illustrating the social inequalities and structures of discrimination against migrant minorities inherent to the migration discourse and (re)produced through language use. The authors take a mixed-methods approach, combining computational and critical approaches to media texts. The focus is on the concepts of linguistic modifiers […]

Reciprocity in welfare institutions and attitudes to free movement in EU receiving countries

This paper analyses the determinants of public attitudes to the “free movement” of workers in the European Union. The authors add to the small but growing research literature on this issue by focusing on how the characteristics of national welfare institutions affect public attitudes to intra-EU labour mobility. More specifically, the paper explores the role […]

Reciprocity in welfare institutions and normative attitudes in EU Member States

This paper analyses how national welfare institutions and normative attitudes to welfare vary across EU/EFTA countries, and how national welfare institutions are linked to welfare attitudes, a long-standing question of comparative welfare state research. Our focus in this paper is on the concept of ‘reciprocity’ in welfare institutions and welfare attitudes, an important, and, we […]

Minimum Wages, Earnings and Mobility in the EU

This document summarises the results of several studies exploring the link between the minimum wage and earnings of EU migrant workers in different EU countries. The results reveal important differences about the relationship of minimum wage change and the earnings of these migrants. For instance, there was a positive increase in the hourly wage of […]

Unemployment Benefits, EU Migrant Workers, and the Social Cost of Protection in European Welfare States

Political tensions surrounding freedom of movement within the EU often arise with respect to the principle that mobile workers should have equal access to the welfare benefits of the host country. There is often a presumption that providing access to social protection programs will lead to an increase in costs. In this paper, the authors […]

Immigration and Unemployment Benefits: Evidence from Germany

Despite the growing body of literature on the labour market impacts of immigration, evidence remains mixed and inconclusive, and additional case studies are necessary to clarify when and why impacts are positive or negative for native populations. In this report, the authors explore the impact of immigration on the likelihood of natives claiming unemployment benefits in Germany — the country which is, by some standards, the main migrant receiving country in Europe. 

Impacts of Return Migration in Poland

As barriers to labour mobility within the EU have been lifted for migrants from Central and Eastern Europe, repeat and circular migration have become more common. However, not much is known about who is involved in this form of mobility. In the case of Poland, a significant number of those who migrated during the post-accession period have since returned, but research on how this migration effects re-integration into the Polish labour market has so far been limited. This paper aims to build a better understanding of this issue, based on census and Labour Force Survey data, and Central Statistical Office estimates. 

Evidence of the Determinants of Migration in the EU

Surprisingly little is known about why people migrate within the EU. While existing studies in the area have tended to focus on migration for reasons of employment, there is a growing push to understand the diversity of migrational factors, for example factors relating to family or education. This working paper seeks to build a better understanding of what drives contemporary migration flows, and of the factors shaping the migration decisions of individuals within the EU.

Patterns of Migration in the European Union

This working paper aims to map the patterns and dynamics of migration within the EU of individuals of EU28 origin as well as those from outside the region. The descriptive analysis is based on existing data, largely drawn from Eurostat’s online database on population statistics. This data allows the mapping of intra EU-migration patterns and dynamics during the last four years. As well as analysing EU28-wide stocks and flows, the paper zooms in to explore intra-EU migration for five of the key migration countries within the EU28: Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK.

National Institutions and the Fiscal Effects of EU Migrants

Debates about the fiscal impacts of intra-EU migration have often focused on the consequences of granting migrant workers unrestricted access to the welfare programs of the host country. This working paper compares different welfare regimes across Europe, and studies how the net fiscal impact of EU migrant households differs across these regimes. The authors do not find any evidence to support the common idea that migrants generate greater fiscal burdens in more generous welfare states.

Effects on utilisation, health and user satisfaction when access to health care is limited

There has been increasing recent debate on whether and to what extent certain sectors of the immigrant population, e.g. undocumented immigrant and mobile EU workers, should get access to welfare benefits and public services. This paper explores a reform that was introduced in Spain in 2012 in order to shed light on this issue.

Indicators of Labour Markets and Welfare States in the European Union

This working paper provides an overview and descriptive analysis of key indicators of national labour markets and welfare states in the European Union. The discussion of labour market indicators uses standard variables and “off-the-shelf” data provided by Eurostat and the OECD, and the overview of national welfare states draws on a range of indicators specifically coded for the REMINDER project and compiled into a new dataset called “Social Protection in Europe Database”. The working paper supports two different work packages within REMINDER by providing institutional and other indicators to be used in subsequent analyses.

The Perceived Impacts of Care Mobility on Sending Countries and Institutional Responses: Healthcare, Long-term Care and Education in Romania and Slovakia

Wealthier Western European countries employ care workers from Eastern European countries to satisfy the increasing need for care of their ageing populations. This paper examines the perceived impacts of care work mobility and institutional responses in Romania and Slovakia.

The Effects of Immigration on Welfare Across the EU: Do Subjective Evaluations Align with Estimations?

This paper examines citizens’ perceptions of the impact of immigration on public finances.

Cross-Border ‘mobilities’ in the Austrian-Hungarian and Austrian-Slovak Border Regions

Along the borders between the “old“ and the ”new” EU, where sizeable differences in income and economic development persist, cross-border commuting and other forms of economically based cross-border relations have become increasingly relevant. This working paper analyses the perceptions of experts and civil servants of the effects of Eastern European enlargement in the Austrian-Hungarian and the Austrian-Slovak border regions with a particular focus on the labour market and the education sector.

Public Attitudes Toward EU Mobility and Non-EU Immigration: A Distinction with Little Difference

This paper looks at why some Europeans support immigration from within the EU while rejecting immigration from elsewhere.

Immigration and the Reallocation of Work Health Risks

This working paper studies the effects of immigration on the allocation of occupational physical burden and work injury risks.

Europeans’ Attitudes To Immigration From Within And Outside Europe: A Role For Perceived Welfare Impacts?

The paper explores to what extent European citizens distinguish between immigration from within and outside Europe, and looks at whether specific concerns related to the effects of immigration on welfare and public finances play a role in these differences.

Understanding the political conflicts around free movement in the European Union: A conceptual framework for an institutional analysis

This working paper provides a theoretical framework for an institutional analysis of why some EU Member States have called for more restricted access for EU workers to welfare benefits whilst others have not.

Indicators of normative attitudes in Europe: Welfare, the European Union, Immigration and Free Movement

This working paper looks at European citizens’ normative attitudes on the welfare state and work, European identity/citizenship and the EU, immigration and free movement.

Media practices related to migration and intra-EU mobility in the EU-10 Member States

This paper presents findings on how the media cover issues of mobility and migration in four Central/Eastern European countries, including in Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia.

Media practices related to migration and intra-EU mobility in the EU-15 Member States

The paper aims to develop a clearer understanding of the commercial, institutional, practical, and technical factors that affect news production and shape media narratives and frames around EU mobility.

Perceptions of the Impact of Immigration and Attitudes Towards Free Movement Within the EU: A Cross-National Study

This paper of work package 9 analyses public opinion on free movement in Europe, specifically looking at geographical differences between EU countries. The authors find that attitudes toward free movement are most positive in Eastern European countries (Hungary, Poland, most positive in Romania). In contrast, the UK is the only country with overall negative attitudes […]

The fiscal effects of intra-EEA migration

This working paper from work package 4 is the first large cross-country estimation of the fiscal effects of migration of EU citizens within the EEA (European Economic Area). The vast majority of EEA countries – 21 out of 29 – saw positive net fiscal impacts during 2004-2015, receiving more in taxes and other contributions from […]

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